1. Diamond: Diamonds are completely composed of a single element of carbon crystals from the crystal minerals, but also the only gem in the composition of a single element of precious stones. Diamonds for octahedral cleavage, that is, plane octahedral crystal surface of the four directions, generally ladder-like. Diamonds are chemically stable and insoluble in acids and alkalis. But in pure oxygen, heated to about 1770 degrees, it will break down. In the vacuum, heated to 1700 Replica Cartier jewelry degrees, it will be broken down into graphite. Diamonds are transparent, translucent, and opaque. Gem-class diamonds should be colorless and transparent, flawless or very few flaws, and can also be slightly yellow or very light brown, the most precious colors are natural pink, followed by blue and green.
2. Pearl: seawater or freshwater shellfish mollusks into the body when the small impurities, the mantle is stimulated by the secretion of a pearl (mainly calcium carbonate), the small layers of impurities wrapped up, and gradually become a small The ball is the pearl. Pearl color is mainly white, pink and light yellow, with pearl luster, the surface of the vaguely flashing rainbow like the same halo pearl. Color white Run, skin light, shape round, the highest value of the largest size.
3. turquoise: turquoise is a self-color gem, is a fully hydrated copper and aluminum phosphate. The formula is CuAl6 (PO4) 4 (OH) 8 · 5H2O (pentahydrate basic aluminum phosphate). The transparency of the turquoise is opaque and the lower part of the sheet is translucent. Polished surface for the oil glass luster, broken for the oil shades. Turquoise species include Persian turquoise, American turquoise and Mexican turquoise, Egyptian turquoise and turquoise with iron wire.
(Na, Ca) 7-8 (Al, Si) 12 (O, S) 24 (SO4), Al2Cl2 (OH) is a kind of mineral ) 2 (OH) 2, where sodium is often partially substituted for potassium and sulfur is partially replaced by sulfate, chlorine or selenium. The types of lapis lazuli include Persian lapis lazuli, Soviet lapis lazuli or Spanish lapis lazuli, Chilean lapis lazuli.
5. Opal stone: minerals are opal, the molecular formula is SiO2 · nH2O (silica hydrate). As the opal sio2 small beads neatly arranged like a grating, when the white light shot in the above after the diffraction, scattered into the color spectrum, so the opal has a gorgeous eye-catching changing color, especially the most red and most precious. The types of http://www.ourlovestore.com opium poppies include white opal, black opal, crystalline opal, fire opal, gypsum or jelly opal, boulder, opal, Or in the matrix of opal.
6. olivine: olivine is a self-color gem, the common color is pure green, yellow green to brown green. Olivine is not colorless. Molecular formula: (Mg, Fe) 2SiO4 (magnesium magnesium silicate). The types of olivine include olivine, topaz, forsterite, fayalite, “dusk emerald” and boro-aluminite.
7. Feldspar: Mineral Classification Feldspar is divided into two main types: Potash feldspar and plagioclase. Molecular formula: KAlSi3O8 (potassium aluminum silicate), NaAlSi3O8 (sodium aluminum silicate). Feldspar types include lunar stone or glacial feldspar, daylight stone or sesame stone, feldspar, river stone or Amazon stone.
8. jade: jade (also known as jade), nephrite. Hard jade is a sodium and aluminum silicate, the formula: NaAl (SiO3) 2. Soft jade is an aqueous calcium magnesium silicate, the formula is: CaMg5 (OH) 2 (Si4O11) 2.
9. Quartz: Quartz is a color of its precious stones, pure quartz colorless and transparent. Molecular formula for the SiO2. The types of quartz include crystal, halo or color red quartz, rutile spot or net rutile quartz, amethyst, citrine, smoke quartz or smoke crystal, hibiscus stone, oriental stone, blue stone quartz, milk quartz, blue quartz or Sapphire quartz, tiger eyes, eagle eyes or falcon eyes, quartz cat’s eye, star or starry quartz.
10. Chalcedony: also known as cryptocrystalline quartz. The formula is sio2. Chalcedony types include chrysanthemum, green chalcedony, red agate, meat red chalcedony, chicken bloodstone, green chalcedony, agate, onyx, jasper, dark green chalcedony, silicon malachite chalcedony, silicified wood
11. Garnet: its crystal and pomegranate seed shape, color is very similar to the name. The general formula for garnet is R3M2 (SiO4) 3 (R, M is an element). Garnet types include iron and aluminum garnet, magnesia garnet, magnesia garnet, manganese aluminum garnet, calcium garnet, calcium chrome garnet.
12. Zircon: the color was red, yellow, blue, purple and so on. The molecular formula is ZrSiO4 (zirconium silicate).
13. Spinel: the color is yellow, green and colorless. The molecular formula is MgAl2O4. Spinel types include red spinel, ruby-colored spinel or ruby spinel, purple or similar magenta-colored spinel, pink or rose-colored spinel, orange-colored spinel, Blue spinel, sapphire spinel or sapphire spinel, like stone spinel, black spinel, iron-magnesium spinel or mafic spinel.
14. Topaz: Topaz is aluminum fluorosilicate, orthorhombic. The molecular formula is Al2 (F, OH) 2SiO4. Topaz species include brown to yellow brown, light blue to light blue, pink, colorless, and other varieties.
15. Tourmaline: extremely complex boroaluminosilicate, which may contain one or more of the following components: magnesium, sodium, lithium, iron, potassium or other metals. The proportions of these http://angelawow.tumblr.com elements are different and the colors are different. The types of tourmalines include red, green, blue, yellow and orange, colorless or white, black, variegated gemstones, cat’s eye tourmaline, color stone-like tourmaline.
16. gold lime: a spinel family of minerals, aluminates. The main component is alumina beryllium, is a orthorhombic system. The molecular formula is BeAl2O4. The types of gold and green jade, including stone, cat’s eye stone, variable stone cat’s eye gem and some other variants.
17. beryl: beryl in its pure state is colorless; different variants have different colors because of the presence of trace metal oxides. In the presence of chromium oxide or vanadium oxide is usually become emerald, and aquamarine is due to ferrous oxide coloring. Cesium beryl is due to the presence of magnesium, while the beryllium is made of iron oxide coloring. Molecular formula: Be3Al2 (SiO3) 6. Beryls include emerald, sapphire, maxixe beryl, beryllium, cesium beryl, other transparent varieties, cat’s eye beryl, star beryl.
18. corundum: corundum is a very common mineral, in addition to star gem, only translucent to the transparent variants can be called gems. Molecular formula for al2o3, containing chromium oxide is red, titanium and iron oxide was blue, with iron oxide was yellow, chromium and iron oxide was orange, iron and titanium oxide was green, chromium, titanium and iron oxide was purple The Corundum types include ruby, starry ruby, sapphire, sapphire sapphire, starlight sapphire.
19. Amber: an organic substance. It is a kind of turquoise turf with some ancient turquoise. Molecular formula for the C40H64O4. Amber species include Haipo, Pitper, Cleppo, Block Perot, Lipopolis, Turbido, Puffer, Bone Perot.
20. Coral: is another creature of raw materials. It is the dendritic calcareous skeleton of the coral with the formation of tiny tiny marine population.
21. Jade: Jade is a variant of lignite (the composition is mainly carbon and contains hydrogen and oxygen). It is made of mud by the compaction of the role, drift wood settling to the bottom of the sea, into the buried fine mud, and then into a hard shale, known as “coal rock”, jade is a biological cause. The jade is amorphous, has a dull luster on the rough surface, and is glossy on the polished surface.
22. tortoise shell: is amorphous, with oil luster to waxy luster, hardness 2.5.
23. Synthetic corundum: refers to the associated natural corundum contrast, with basically the same physical, optical and chemical properties of man-made materials.
24. Synthetic gem: refers to artificial gemstones that are basically the same physical, optical and chemical properties as those associated with natural gemstones. Synthetic gemstones include synthetic rutile, strontium titanate, yttrium aluminum garnet, rolled gal garnet, synthetic cubic zircon, synthetic sapphire, synthetic spinel, synthetic rutile, synthetic stone, synthetic diamonds, synthetic emeralds, synthetic Park, synthetic quartz.
25. Boulder: also known as composite stone, which is a kind of two different materials from the bonding of precious stones. The type of double stone is divided according to the nature of the material used for bonding. The type of double stone is garnet and glass double stone, emerald substitutes, Opal stone substitutes, starlight sapphire substitutes, diamond substitutes, and other various imitation stone complex stone.